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Liberecky kraj

The Liberec Region is the northernmost region of Bohemia. Closely following Prague Region, the Liberec Region is the second smallest area in the Czech Republic, with a territory of 3,163.40 km². This area poses approximately 4% of the territory of Czechia. The region consists of four districts, the Česká Lípa District, Liberec District, Jablonec nad Nisou District, and the Semily District. [1] The territory of the Liberec Region spreads over the Czech basin, Jizera Mountains, the western foothills of the Krkonoše Mountains, and the eastern part of the Luž Mountains. The northern edges of the region form a state border with Germany to the west and Poland to the east. To the south, the Liberec area borders the District of Central Bohemia, and to the west, the District of Ústí. The eastern part of the district borders the Hradec Králové District.[2] The seat and at the same time the largest city of the region is Liberec, through which the river Lužická Nisa flows. Approximately 442,476 people live in the Liberec Region, which adds up to the population density of 139.9 inhabitants per square kilometer. [3]

What Liberecky kraj is known for

Regarding the economy and business, the Liberec Region is historically associated and generally famous for its long tradition of glass, jewelry, and glass-jewelry production. It's possible to take a tour of a glasswork factories in the various places around the region, such as in the towns of Železný Brod, Semily, Turnov, Jablonec nad Nisou, Poniklá or Frýdlant. It's also possible to visit the Museum of Glass and jewellery located in the Jablonec nad Nisou town. The exhibition is considered to be unique in its kind and in the quality of the collection. For these reasons, Bohemian glassware is an internationally recognized and admired product of the Liberec Region. [4]

Another specialty of the Liberec Region are the various beer breweries located in the area. Among them is the most famous brand, Svijany. The Svojany village was founded in 1345, with the brewery later being established in 1546. Over 400 years of operation has led the business to be recognized as producing a relatively great quality beer while also earning worldwide recognition.  Nowadays, the brewery offers the exhibitions in the reconstructed Svijany castle and a beer spa. A component of the Svijany beer brand is also a restaurant chain, where the original beer is served. [5]

Except the traditional production and attractions connected with them, the area of the Liberec Region offers many natural sights. One of the most popular touristic destinations presumably is the protected area of the Bohemian Paradise. The typical and relatively most popular element of the Bohemian Paradise area is the stone towns. The sandstone of this area has been shaped by the wind, water, frost, erosion, and human development into unique shapes, creating one of the most popular natural sights of the region.[7]

Another unique natural attraction in this area is the Bozkovské Dolomite Caves. The caves are located on the northern edge of the village Bozkov, in the Semily District. In the lowest parts, these caves are permanently flooded by water forming underground lakes. The lakes are the largest of their kind in the Czech Republic. The total length of the caves discovered so far is approximately 1,118 meters, which makes these caves the longest dolomite caves in the Czech Republic.[8]

The territory of the Liberec region is filled with castles, chateaus, and ruins. Among the most preserved and presumably most popular are the Frýdlant Castle and Chateau. The building has been rebuilt multiple times, from the original Gothic castle into a large Renaissance chateau. The exposition features rich decoration and extensive collections of immense historical and artistic value. The houses in front of the castle also belong to the exposition, as they are equally historically valuable. The Frýdlant Chateau was also the first castle and chateau museum in Central Europe with it being opened in 1800.  [9]


The Liberec Region spreads across the Czech Highlands area. The relief of this territory is rather rugged, with the dominant mountains being the Lusatian and Jizera Mountains in the north and the Giant Mountains in the northeast. The cones of the Ralská Uplands in the southwest are also prominent. To the southeast, the northern part of the Jičín Hills extends into the region as well. The highest point of the area is the peak Kotel sitting at an altitude of 1,435 m above sea level, which is located in the Giant Mountains. The lowest point is the Smědá River which has an altitude of 208 m above sea level.[3] However, the most famous peak of the Liberec Region is Ještěd, with an altitude of 1,012 m. Regarding the waters in this area, there are three main rivers gathering the water from the whole territory, the Ploučnice River in the west, Labe River in the east, and the Odra (Nisa) River in the north. The biggest water areas in the region include Máchovo lake, Sedlištský pond, and Josefův Důl water reservoir.[10]

The Liberec Region includes a great variety of ecosystems, protected areas, and fauna and flora. The region covers five protected landscape areas, eight national nature reserves, nine national nature monuments, 36 nature reserves, and 73 nature monuments. Regarding minerals and mining, the region is rich in foundry and glass sands of good quality. One example can be mining of ornamental and building stone. Nowadays, the region disposes of sand, gravel, and broken stone aggregates mines. [10]

Regarding the climate of the Liberec area, one of the most popular times to visit would be in the months of May, June, or July; when the temperatures fall somewhere between 20° and 25°C. The warmest month of the year is August, with an average temperature of 21.5°C. The coldest month is January when temperatures drop to an average maximum temperature of 2.6°C. July receives the most precipitation with 81 mm of rainfall, whereas the driest month is February with 29 mm of precipitation.[11]


The historical sources suggest that at the end of the 13th century, a settlement emerged on the trade route from Bohemia to Lusatia which later evolved into Liberec. The first mention of the village can be dated back to 1352. The original name was Reychinberch, which is of German origin, however, the name later transformed into Liberec. In the small proximity to Liberec were settlements that were deemed more important, such as Hrádek nad Nisou and Frýdlant. Over time, the town grew and by the end of the 17th century, the town was commissioned to increase the production of cloth for the army. The 18th century is marked as the golden age for the city, as the development of the textile industry increased rapidly. The production was transformed into a manufactory, the town was inhabited by 800 cloth masters, 480 companions, and more than 1,000 of their assistants. Through this, Liberec became the largest manufacturing city in the Kingdom of Bohemia, thus its importance increased quickly and it increased, even more, when manufacturers transformed into textile factories. At the beginning of the 19th century, the city of Liberec was the second-largest city in Bohemia, after Prague. In 1850, Liberec gained the status of a statutory city.[12]

By the end of the 19th century, Liberec was a predominantly German city with a 7% Czech population. This became a great problem after Czechoslovakia was founded in 1918. Sudeten Germans living in the city of Liberec refused to be part of Czechoslovakia, thus they established the province of Deutschböhmen on the northern border, with their own government, currency, and made Liberec as the capital. However, their effort to join Germany was destroyed when the Czechoslovakian army overruled the Liberec territory, almost without any fight. The Sudeten German Party won the election in Liberec in 1935. As a result of that, in 1938 the entire Czech population of Liberec had to move, as the Sudenetland (whole Liberec region) fell under the rule of the German Third Reich. After the end of the Second World War, the vast majority of the original inhabitants were moved within two years. Only after the Velvet Revolution in 1990, did Liberec become a statutory city again, as we know it today.[12]