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Olomoucky kraj

The Olomouc Region is one of the main regions in the Moravia area, creating its central and northern parts. It borders the Republic of Poland in the north, the Moravian-Silesian Region in the east, the Pardubice Region in the west, and the Zlín and South Moravian Regions in the south. The region is composed of five districts; Jeseník, Olomouc, Prostějov, Přerov, and Šumperk. The total area of the region is 5,271.46 square kilometers, which represents 6.7% of the area in the Czech Republic. As of the 1st of December 2016, the Olomouc Region has a total population of 633,925 people, which adds up to the density of population of 120.3 inhabitants per kilometer squared. The region is divided into the northern mountainous part. The Jeseníky Mountains is where the highest point of the region is located, in the mountain Praděd at an altitude of 1,491 m above sea level. The southern part of the region is formed by the  Haná plane. The most dominant river flowing through the region is the Morava river. The level of the Morava river, near Kojetín in the Přerov district, is the lowest point in the region, which has an altitude of 190 m above sea level.

What Olomoucky kraj is known for

The Olomouc Region is a region with historical background, as well as nature, culture, sport,s and recreational opportunities. The area has an abundance of natural sights and preserved areas such as Jeseníky, Litovelské Pomoraví, and the natural reservation Parděd, where the highest peak of the region is located. [3]

Regarding the water attractions of the area, one of the most popular sights is the Mossy lakes of Rejvíz. These lakes pose a unique water area, to which wooden paths lead. It is a frequent destination for tourists staying in the Jesenice area, presumably because of its untouched nature and the relatively high quantity of endangered species that can be found in the area.[2]

Another point of interest for visitors is seemingly the wide arrangement of caves located in this territory. An unambiguous precedent among them would be the Cave Na Pomezí, which is the largest cave system in the Czech Republic, created by dissolving marble. Another natural feature that can be found in the territory is the Cave Na Špičáku, which is one of the oldest documented caves in Central Europe. The first mention of this cave dates back to 1430. Other popular caves in the area include the Javoříčské Caves, Maldečské Caves or Zbrašovské Aragonite Caves. [4]

The Olomouc Region has a history to which many cultural and historical sights, museums, and attractions are tied. The territory offers a great variety of reconstructed castles, chateaus, and expositions. One of them is the State Chateau Jánský Vrch, located in Javorník. The chateau offers one of the largest collections of pipes in the Czech Republic, special costume tours for children, Fairytale Park, and interiors with original elements. [5] Another notorious historical sight is the castle Šternberk built in the 14th century. The main attraction during the tour is the interior of the castle with the decorations from the 14th to the 19th century. The exposition also features the work of Dutch, Italian, German, and Czech sculptors and painters. [6]

Among other spectacles of the region belongs the exposition of witch trials located in the reconstructed cellars of the Water Fortress in the Jeseník area. The inquisitorial trials were held in this area during the 13th century. The exposition contains actual hand copies of documents and replicas of torture instruments of that time period.[7]

Located in the capital city of the region is presumably one of the most famous sights of the region, the Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc. The baroque style column was built between 1716-1754, it is 35m high and it is listed on the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List. The pillar also contains a small chapel on the inside. The chapel is filled with relics depicting the sacrifices of Cain, Abel, Noah, and Abraham.[8]


The area of the Olomouc Region consists of the foothills of Low Jeseník, the floodplain of the Morava River, which includes an extensive fertile plain Haná, the Moravian Gate with the Bečva River, and the edge of the Drahanská Highlands in the Konicko area. This territory is characterized by natural diversity, with characteristic elements of lowlands, hills, and highlands. The cornerstones of natural resources include the natural flow of the Morava River with adjacent floodplain forests and floodplain meadows, plus the Hranická Abyss and the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves in the Moravian Gate. There is also a great number of zoologically and botanically significant localities in the Low Jeseník and Drahanská Highlands.[9] A notable occurrence, especially from the point of view of nature protection, is the preservation of plant and animal species in various vegetation types. This testifies to the preservation of part of the region's natural values, as well as to the successful efforts to protect the natural resources.[10]

The Olomouc Region is located in many climatic areas- warm, slightly warm, and cold. The warmest and driest area of the region is the Upper Moravia gorge, whereas the coldest and wettest parts of the region are those located in the higher altitudes, such as Low Jeseník. The climate is characterized as a typical Central European climate with four seasons changing throughout the year. The summers are warm and dry and the winters are typically shorter and have a relatively high amount of snowfall. [11] In general, August is the warmest month of the year with a maximum average temperature of 24.0°C. The coldest month is January with an average maximum temperature of 0.0°C. The month that receives the most precipitation is June, with an average of 72mm of rainfall. The driest month is February with 24mm of rainfall on average. [12]


The oldest settlements in the territory of today's city of Olomouc can be dated back to prehistoric times, based on the archaeological findings. The first settlement of the town itself can be dated back to the Early Stone Age. The fertile land around the hill created settlement conditions suitable for farmers. The area was also settled by Celtic and Germanic tribes, however, the most recent discoveries show that a Roman camp from the second half of the second century was located here as well. Another important condition for the early settlements of this area was the trade routes, which were located near the Olomouc territory. The city is located near the southern branch of the Eurasian highway, as well as on the road connecting Krems with Eastern Europe. For these reasons, the growth of the Olomouc's economical and political presence was very rapid, since the middle of the 10th century. Presumably, that's why the Czech monarchs choose this place as the first Moravian residence after the annexation of Moravia fell to the Olomouc. The exact year when Olomouc became a royal city isn't known, however, it happened before the year 1246, during the rule of King Václav I. In 1315, the city was hit by the plague epidemic. In 1469, the city endured a relatively great fire, and then another fire in 1492. The reconstruction in the 15th century then included not only the townhouses but also a couple of new and important buildings, such as the town hall with the astronomical clock. [13] 

At the beginning of the 17th century, Olomouc was still the largest and economically strongest Moravian city, however, its value began to slowly degrade. The biggest blow for the city was the occupation of the city by the Swedes, when on June 14, 1642, the city surrendered to the Swedish army. During this occupation, the city's population dropped to 1,675 people. In 1762, the city confirmed the privilege of using the title of royal capital. The interesting fact from this era is, that in 1767, eleven-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed his VI symphonies in F major during his stay in Olomouc. The end of the 19th century and also the 20th century were marked by the further development, modernization, and expansion of the city. For example, in 1898, the Provincial Hospital with a maternity clinic was established and a year later, trams began to run in Olomouc. However, the city was overruled by Germans until the establishment of Czechoslovakia. After the Velvet Revolution, municipal self-government was restored, and Olomouc again became a statutory city. In the year 2000, the Olomouc Region had been established, with Olomouc as its capital city. [14]