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Pardubicky kraj

The Pardubice Region is one of the 14 administrative regions of the Czech Republic. The majority of the region is located in eastern Bohemia, but part of it stretches to the north-western part of Moravia as well. The region neighbours Středočeský, Královéhradecký, Olomoucký, Jihomoravský and Vysočina Regions of the Czech Republic. It also shares a national border with Poland in the north. The Pardubice Region, with an area of 4519 square kilometers, is the fifth smallest region of the Czech Republic. It builds up 5.7% of the total area of Czechia. The Pardubice territory comprises four districts, Chrudim, Pardubice, Svitavy, and Ústí nad Orlicí. In the central part of the region is the Labe lowland, through which the most significant river of the region, Labe, flows. The Labe lowland is surrounded by various mountain ranges. The southern parts of the region's borders are formed by the Orlické Mountains and the westernmost parts contain the Hrubý Jeseník Mountain Range. The Žďárské Hills and the Železné Mountains line the southeastern borders of the region.[1] Regarding the population of the Pardubice Region, as of January 1st, 2019, the population of the region was 520,316 inhabitants, which comprises 4.9% of the Czech Republic's population. The density of the population adds up to 120 inhabitants per kilometer squared.[2]

What Pardubicky kraj is known for

The Pardubice Region is mostly known for its gingerbread, horse breeding, and the numerous quantity of castles and chateaus located in the area. One of the most popular touristic destinations of the Pardubice Region is the chateau Litomyšl. This castle is part of the UNESCO-protected national heritage. The castle was built between 1568-1581 in the Italian Renaissance architectural style. Part of the Litomyšl exposition are chapels, ceremonial salons, grand dining room, billiard room, private rooms, and bedrooms. The most unique part of the castle is the theater from the 18th century with preserved classical scenes.[4] Another popular sight of the region is the castle Slatiňany, which offers six different exposition tours. One of these tours involves a visit to the Hippological Museum, which is part of the castle. The scientific part of the Hippological Museum acquaints visitors with the evolution and history of horses, horse anatomy, breeding, and use in society.[5] One of the most prominent castles in the region is situated directly in the city of Pardubice, which is the capital of the Pardubice Region. The Pardubice Castle offers various exhibitions, tours through the museum and libraries, and also hosts numerous events. [6]

Last but not least among the castles is the castle Kunětická hora. The castle is located over the Labe (Elbe) river. It's comprised of a heavily fortified building from the late 15th century, which is standing on a hill of volcanic origin, in a unique natural location.[7] In the small proximity to the castle is situated a hunting lodge, which was originally built in 1882. Nowadays, the lodge is known as the Gingerbread House, which presumably is one of the most notorious attractions of the region. The Gingerbread House hosts numerous social activities and events and also offers tours through the Gingerbread Museum.[8]

The territory of the Pardubice Region is historically connected with horse breeding. The heart of the horse breeding tradition is situated in the National Stud at Kladruby nad Labem. The horse breeding tradition dates back 400 hundred years ago. The Kladruber horse breed represents the oldest Czech breed of horses and is probably the only breed of horses in the world that was bred specifically for pulling coaches of emperors and kings. The Stud functions to this day, but it also offers various expositions and tours of the Royal Stables, Castle, or Forester’s House, for visitors and tourists.[9]

Apart from the castles and chateaus, the Pardubice area also contains unique museums. One example can be the Museum of the Puppet Culture in Chrudim. [10]Another specialty among the museums can probably be considered the Museum of the Baroque Statues in the town of Chrudim. [11]


The central part of the Pardubice territory contains the Labe lowland, which lies encircled by four dominant mountain ranges, Orlické Mountains, Hrubý Jeseník Mountain Range, Žďárské Hills, and Železné Mountains. The highest point of the region is the Králický Sněžník Mount located at an altitude of 1424 m above sea level. It is part of the Králický Sněžník mountain range. This area has been declared a national nature monument due to it containing vegetation that is older than other places in the area. The lowest point of the region is located at the surface of the Labe river, at an altitude of 201 m above sea level.[1]

The Pardubice environment is rather varied, the distinctions in the environment are mainly caused by diverse natural conditions, settlements, and industrial or agricultural development. The most preserved areas, in terms of the protected and endangered species and original natural conditions, are the foothill and upland areas of Ústí nad Orlicí District and Chrudim District. These parts of the region lack any large human settlements, allowing for relatively untouched nature.[1]

The Pardubice Region is an important area regarding water management, due to its excessive water supplies. One of the important factors is the number of springs and headstreams without any pollution, which are located in Pardubice territory. The largest water surface areas of the region are the Seč Reservoir located on the Chrudimka River, the Bohdaneč Pond on the Opatovice River Channel, and the Pastviny Dam situated on the Divoká Orlice River.[1]

Concerning the Pardubice temperature and climate conditions, the Pardubice territory is situated in the continental climate area, which is characterized by an alteration of four seasons throughout the year, with relatively hot summers and cold winters. Warmer areas of the region are mostly its southern parts, the areas located in the Labe lowland in particular. On the other hand, colder areas are situated mostly in the hilly northeastern part of the region.[2] In general, July is the warmest month of the year with a maximum average temperature of 22.0°C. The coldest month is January with an average maximum temperature of 0.0°C. The most precipitation occurs in June with an average of 91 mm of rainfall. The driest month is January with 22 mm of rainfall on average.[3]


The first mentions of the existence of Pardubice city can be dated back to 1295 when Pope Boniface VIII confirmed the monastery and the church of St. Bartholomew in Pardubice. However, Pardubice earned the status of town sometime around 1340. At that time, the town belonged to the family of lords of Pardubice. One of the more prominent figures of the family was Arnošt of Pardubice, who earned the title of the first archbishop of Prague, however, he was also a close friend and advisor of King Charles IV. Two hundred years after Pardubice became a town, it became generally notorious for its city center which includes a castle, palace, and a square surrounded by distinctive alleyways and streets. At the time, the city center was considered to be "modern," and its uniqueness is still a prominent element of Pardubice to this day. The Middle Age was the time of the Pardubice's greatest bloom and development. In 1491, the local water castle was rebuilt into a late Gothic residence, later the reconstruction continued and the buildings were designed and reconstructed in the Renaissance style. In 1560, Pardubice was under the rule of the Habsburgs and the development and fame of the town started to decline. Later on, the development continued, but only after the railway was established in the city. A distillery and a sugar factory were established, important companies such as Fantovy factories (now the Paramo Refinery) or the manufacturer of mill machines Prokop and Sons were founded. These businesses foreshadowed the overall development of the Pardubice industry, especially in the fields of engineering and food. The economy and business progress went hand in hand with the rise of cultural and sporting events as well. On November 5, 1874, the world-renowned Great Pardubice Race, which is a famous cross-country steeplechase run, was organized for the first time and since then has been held every year, hosting riders from all over the world. Another expansion of the industry occurred after World War I; at that time Tesla company was established here. After the Second World War, the construction of new districts began and in 2000, Pardubice city became the capital city of the Pardubice Region.[12]