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Sachsen, or Saxony, located in the eastern part of the country, is one of Germany's 16 federal states. Neighboring Poland to the east and the Czech Republic to the south, the area contributes to Germany's state borders. Within the country, Saxony is bounded by Saxony-Anhalt to the northwest, Brandenburg to the north, Bavaria to the southwest, and Thuringia to the west.[3] The region's capital city is Dresden, situated in the central part of the region. However, the largest city is Leipzig, which can be found in Sachsen's northwestern corner.[1] Concerning the local natural conditions, Saxony's northern part is mainly composed of a flat landscape, whereas the Ore Mountains cover the southern part of the territory.[3] Several national parks and protected areas lie within Sachen's borders. Saxon Switzerland is reportedly one of the most visited among them. Other considerable attractions found in the region are the Moritzburg Castle and Muskau, to name a few.[1] 

What Sachsen is known for

The largest city within Saxony's borders is Leipzig, which can be found in the northwestern part of the territory. However, Sachsen's capital is Dresden, located in the heart of the region. The city is the center of the "Silicone Saxony," a nickname given to the town due to a considerable accumulation of microchip producers near the city. Aside from being a technological and industrial hub, Dresden also bears historical significance. Despite several cultural monuments being destroyed during the Second World War, the completion of the reconstruction process and preservation of several sites contributed to Dresden becoming one of Saxony's most popular touristic destinations.[7] Among the city's allegedly top-rated monuments and sights are the Frauenkirche and Neumarkt Square, the Procession of Princes, the Royal Palace, the Semper Opera House, and Zwinger Palace, to name a few.[8]

In terms of historical and cultural landmarks, to the north of Dresden lies the Moritzburg Castle. Moritzburg is recognized for its "fairy-tale appearance," as the castle stands on the island in the middle of the lake. Built as the hunting lodge for Duke Moritz in 1542, currently, the castle is considered by some to be one of the most beautiful moated castles in Germany. Decorated with one of the most significant collections of hunting trophies in Europe, ornate gilt leather tapestries, and over a million colored feathers in the Feather Room, the castle can also be recognized as the setting of one of Europe's most famous movie adaptations of Cinderella, The Three Wishes for Cinderella.[9] 

Apart from the historical and cultural landmarks, Saxony also offers a variety of outdoor options and attractions. One example is the Saxon Switzerland National park, featuring a rocky landscape unique to Germany with several hiking, cycling, and walking opportunities. Scattered across the park, there are various points of interest. One of them is the Bastei Bridge, which became an unofficial symbol of the national park. Stretching along 76.5 meters of rock formations, the Bastei Bridge offers a view of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains and numerous other viewpoints.[10]

Situated In the northeastern corner of the region is Muskau, a destination that is notable for being a "bath and spa town." The town provides spa procedures in the thermal spring waters and features a palace and a UNESCO World Heritage Site known as Muskau Park. Reportedly, Muskau Park is considered one of continental Europe's "most beautiful" landscape parks. Established between 1815 and 1845, the park—which was designed in an English style—lies partly in Germany and partly in Poland, attracting tourists from both states as well as several abroad visitors.[11] Outside Muskau, the Rakotzbrücke, or the Devil's Bridge, can be found in the western direction from the city. The bridge is one of Germany's most visited places, as it is located in the Kromalu Rhododendron park, which attracts those who take interest in nature.[12]


The federal state of Saxony stretches across the eastern part of Germany, bordering Poland to the east and Czechia to the south. Saxony's landscape is mainly composed of hills and mountains, except for its northernmost portion, which descends into the great North European Plain. The southern border of the state is comprised of the Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge), approaching elevations of approximately 1,200 meters above sea level, while the northeastern corner of the territory is covered by the Upper Lusatia (Lausitz) mountain range. Considering the rivers and water flows in Saxony, the most significant river is the Elbe, flowing from southeast to northwest. The second largest river in the territory is Mulde, Elbe's tributary. In terms of landscapes, over one-half of Saxony's land is used for agriculture. Northern Saxony features one of Germany's most fertile types of soil. The area's cultivated land can produce wheat, barley, rape, sugar beets, peas, and apples, to name a few, for export as well as domestic use. Correspondingly, the Ore Mountains are covered in pastures primarily for cattle raising.[3] 

Stretching across the borders from the Czech territory is the National Park Bohemian Switzerland. The park protruding to Germany's territory is called National Park Saxon Switzerland, which reportedly is among the most popular touristic destinations in the country, possibly due to its preserved landscape, a considerable number of natural monuments, and a variety of hiking, cycling, and walking trails. Saxon Switzerland is Germany's only non-alpine rock national park.[5] The landscape of Saxon Switzerland is composed of forested regions, inaccessible rock towers and faces, slopes, moist gorges, and various streams, providing several different habitats. [6]

Concerning Saxony's weather conditions, the area is affected by a temperate climate, with four alternating seasons throughout the year. However, the mountainous part of Saxony tends to be colder and of harsher conditions.[3] The temperatures in the region's capital, Dresden, average a yearly maximum of 14°C and minimum of 6°C, with the warmest month being July and the coldest January. February tends to be the driest month in Dresden, with an average of 36 mm of rainfall. The most precipitation falls during July, with an average of 89 mm.[4]


Sachsen territory has been inhabited since ancient times. Supposedly, one of central Europe's temples was situated within the region's borders. The city of Dresden has been one of the hubs of ancient civilization and, to this day, remains one of the notable archeological sites. The first formed state of Saxony was established in the Early Middle Ages, when the Duchy of Saxony included Bremen, Hamburg, North Rhine-Westphalia, Schleswig-Holstein, and more. Later, in the 10th century, the territory of Saxony became part of the Holy Roman Empire as the Free State of Saxony within the empire.[1]

Throughout its history, Sachsen's borders and integrated regions changed several times. In the 18th century, the Saxon territory was promoted to the Electorate of Saxony. Later, in 1756, the electorate became part of Austria, France, and Russia's coalition against Prussia. Due to Saxony's opposition to Prussia, the Prussian king attacked Saxony, which was defeated and became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. However, by the end of the 18th century, Saxony became an independent state again after the Seven Years' War. After that, Saxony remained an independent kingdom until 1918.[2]

After the Second World War, Saxony became part of East Germany under Soviet influence. Apart from being a significant part of German history during previous millennia, when Saxony, and its capital city Dresden, prospered, the state also played an essential role in the fall of communism in East Germany. The peaceful demonstrations in Dresden and other areas led to East Germany's freedom and the toppling of the communist dictatorship. Nowadays, Sachsen is one of eastern Germany's most densely populated states.[3]